Sunday, June 24, 2012

India:A Union and Aspirant States Of India!

We speak of RTI and patriotism in India.How many of them know India is a merely a union under a common constitution we came together to live together.Actually even name India doesn't belong to us its been derived historically from European Scripts.Romans,Greeks first used Indus to define land around Indus river and Civilization.Later it become "Indos" in pronunciation among Romans and Greek.Then it became "India" ,Which in Latin means Large land mass around Indus.The name Bharath is derived from epic Ramayana story."Hindustan" means majority of Hindu living land.

When East India company entered India they were separate princely states.Its under British Empire rule presidencies and provinces were created.Around 19th century only a link has been created across the country.India was administratively divided into 7 major presidencies and minor provinces.Its the time inspiration of freedom aroused and everyone had a same feeling of brotherhood.When British came forward to give freedom for entire Indian Sub-Continent its merely a broken pieces.

British accepted two nation theory and declared Muslim majority region as Pakistan.Pakistan got freedom a day before India.Majority of the Muslim in Indian presidency moved to Pakistan.Then its only Gandhi who said Muslim can live in India with Hindu has Brothers.Even After Partition of India,it never looked complete.India was like broken glass with lots of broken territory.9 Presidencies came forward to live together has one nation.The major problem for building complete India was been 565 princely state and Foreign country colony.



Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V.P.Menon were two Instrumental person for creating united India.When British were to Leave India in 1947 with Governor-genral alone for few months.Its the time when most of the Princely state has to decided whether to join with India or Pakistan or Independent state.Patel and menon met every head of the princely state for accession with India.The head of the princely state was to decided weather to be with Muslim dominated Pakistan or secular India.

Cochin,Jawar etc like princely states openly declared to be with India.The Large princely States like Bhopal,Travancore and Hyderabad said to remain Independent state.Some of them tried to form union among them to form a separate nation.The effort was failed since pressure from Congress and Lack of understanding between Kings.Nizam of Hyderabad tried to have relation with Portuguese for buying Goa to have a sea link.Travancore maharaja tried to make European contact with Thorium wealth of the state.Nawab of Bhopal lost her identity since he was considered as supporter of Pakistan.

Lord Mountbatten played a important role for accession of united India.Lord had close relation with all princess of the princely state,Mountbatten forced indirectly for accession with India.He threaten them that British wont grant domino status and grant Common wealth status.So its must to join with India or Pakistan.He also expressed that rise of communism movement may risk there princely state.Which made many princely state coming forward to accession with India.  

Many princely state accepted to be with India only because of there confidence over Patel and Menon.Patel Assured them that no domination would be shown on Princely states.On Other side Nehru expressed anger over princely state saying "if they fail to sign accession with India it would be considered as"enemy state"".Based on which Patel and Menon prepared two documents one is standstill agreement and another Instrument of Accession under they are willing to bring there kingdom under Independent India.

Even after Independence some princely States were Independent and some were negotiating with Pakistan.Hyderabad and Kashmir made it clear to be independent state.Jodhpur Princely were about to sign with Pakistan,but its Lord Mountbatten who said Hindu state must be with India.Junagadh acceded with Pakistan,but Indian government felt it may lead to political tension in Gujarat.So Indian troop entered princely state and captured the kingdom.

Kashmir was merged with India after Hari Singh signed with India.Its only Muslim majority state which came with India.Pakistan not ready to accept the agreement,they occupied about 2/4 of the Kashmir.Hyderabad remained Independent state till 1948.When operation Polo was conducted to annex with India.Hyderabad after 5 days of stiff fight,genral of Hyderabad surrendered to Indian army.Lakshadweep was under Madras presidencies in British rule.So its natural for Muslim major Lakshadweep to annex with India.Patel order royal Indian navy to hoist Indian flag in Lakshadweep,to avoid Pakistan entering the place.After more than hour when Indian navy hoisted flag in Lakshadweep Pakistan arrived there after seeing Indian navy they left back to Karachi.

India was merged finally into a complete large land mass.Then also India had some problem in colony of other countries near Indian border.French came forward to hand over there land to be ruled under Republic of India.In 1956,India accepted France demand of vote right for french settlement in there colony land.Portuguese was not ready to handover the land for India.In 1961,Indian army entered Goa and chased away Portuguese.Sikkim princely state finally came under India,but Nehru rejected the paper of Khan of Kalat accession with India.Finally they signed with Pakistan.

Its final work of Patel and Menon who merged smaller states to form a large state.Which would be easy for better administration.


State Reorganization,Act-1958

South India saw a major stir for division of states based on linguistics.So central Government made a major reorganization structure of boundaries. Many new southern states were created and some states boundaries were modified.Language based states gave better control of the territory.Linguistics state division became possible only after few last there soul for this cause.This division of states happened just within a decade of Independence.

After 2000:

Aspirant states of India

Bodoland:A small state formed from Assam,which is ethnic state for bodo people.Bodoland territorial Council was formed to administrate Bodo people majority state.
Telangana:Western top edge of Present Andhra Pradesh.Its one of the region frequently affected by Drought and agriculture Failure.It's also under developed part in Andhra Pradesh.
Vidarbha:A drought affected part of Maharashtra.It has accounted for largest suicide of Farmers in entire country.Vidarbha problem sustains more than 4 decades.
Gorkhaland:Its a part of West Bengal.Where Gorkha people are majority of them.The demand of Gorkhaland has become political movement of the people.Gorkhaland territorial Administration took over the administration of the region.
Other States:Bundelkhand (Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh),Delhi,Gondwana (northern Deccan Plateau,Harit Pradesh (Uttar Pradesh),Kamtapur / Greater Cooch Behar (West Bengal),Karbi Anglong (Assam),Kodagu (Karnataka),Kongu Nadu (Tamil Nadu),Vanni Nadu (Tamil Nadu),Kosal/Koshal (Orissa),Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir),Mahakoshal (Madhya Pradesh),Mithila(Bihar),Panun Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir),Purvanchal (Uttar Pradesh),Rayalaseema (Andhra Pradesh),Tulu Nadu (Karnataka and Kerala),Maru Pradesh (Rajasthan),Vindhya Pradesh (Madhya Pradesh),Saurashtra(Gujarat)

Something to Think:Why cant we have second state reorganization?Whats problem in breaking smaller states for better adminstration?

Some separate statehood demand look right with ethnic and language division.Even people of the region wanted a separate state.Some of the demands for separate state looks for political millage of some political parties.Some caste based fake representation were made in statehood demand like kongu nadu and vanni nadu from Tamil Nadu(NO people in  the region demand separate state).
India Government must form a committee to consider all separate statehood demand and decided opportunity for state.Government has to go into second state reorganization based on language,economic and ethnic.Government must consider Views both people of new state demand and existing state people.Government never must support caste based statehood demands.Second state reorganization only can give security for Indian union.         

Source:Government report,Political Integration of India,History,Internet Source,Bablu Taught's


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