Thursday, August 30, 2012

One Sided Accumulation of Wealth In India?

India after 1991 Liberalism policy number of corporate company increased thrice the number. Top 1000 companies in India each grows 5 times combined growth of India. There are approx. 50 billionaires and 1.75 lakh millionaires in India there combined wealth is 9 times than yearly budget of India. There combined legal wealth alone touches around $1,500 billion dollars (75 lakh crores rs) and illegal wealth accounts Unknown. The list doesn't included Mafia's, Smugglers, Don's, politicians and gamblers. The combined wealth of such illegal actives accounts equal to around $100 billion dollar (5 lakh crores rs).      

India started to develop one sided more oriented to negligible portion of the population.The complete details about  various Legal wealth accumulation.
Class Range(in $) Range(in Rs) No of Person Combined Wealth(in $) Combined Wealth(in RS) % of Nations wealth
Billionaires 1Billion+ r 1000 million 5000 Crore+ 48 200 Billion 10 lakh Crore 6%
Multi-Millionaires 100 Million+ 500 Crore+ 2928 ~300 Billion ~15 Lakh Crore+ 7%
Millionaires 1 Million+ 5 Crore+ 1,73,000 ~1000 Billion ~50 Lakh Crore+ 25%
Total ~1.753 Lakh ~1,500 Billion ~75 Lakh Crore+ 38%
Note:*All Dollar to Rupee Trasfer based on value Rs50**All values based on International Report***Data Complied by

Illegal wealth (Swiss account,black money,smuggling etc) adds another 5 Lakh Crore to the list making it a round figure of 40% of nations wealth.


Creates income inequality.
Increases Inflation and price of essential commodity.
Merely not even 0.1% of population holds around 40% of wealth creates economic instability.
Increase chances of political instability.
Makes entire nation economy depended on them.
Increase Corruption and scam.
They will dominate Government policy and principles.
Ruling class run under the shadow on this negligible section of people.
Provides in-equal education,health,sanitation and housing.
Rich get richer, poor get poorer.
Destroys mass production sectors like agriculture etc.
It makes everyone to work under a common owner.
Government will lose power and stability.


All Richie must come forward like Warren Buffet, Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerburg to spend more 50% of wealth for people & society.
Government must introduce huge progressive wealth tax.
No tax exemption should be provided for corporate business & Richie (last 4 years tax exemption of 4 Lakh Crore provided.)
Built strong state owned enterprises rather than privatization.
Monitor all huge money flow across the country.
Introduce money card for transaction of money rather than physical money.

Source:Times of India,World Bank,Internet Source,Bablu Taught's

Saturday, August 25, 2012

5 Myth's of Liberalism/Privatization/Globalization In India!!!

5 Myth about Privatization in India:

Myth 1-private ownership creates Enormous job opportunity: Yes, it creates huge job opportunity but a in stable job market. They promote only temporary jobs not permanent jobs. There is always a different between temporary and permanent job, permanent job provides job guarantee and security. where as in temporary job you can be sent out of job without any notice at any time. 

Myth 2-golbalization leads to Economic growth: yes, Economic will grow but when market falls American recession situation only in India. So its myth that private company develop nation, since without state owned company if Market falls then economic will drop. Economic growth of nation will be unstable and depended on private company.

Myth 3-Liberalism Reduces Corruption: Yes, it reduces corruption but increase scam (we reduce 100rs corruption but lead to 1000 cr scam.) Liberalism may reduce corruption but get involve in huge scams. Its too dangerous for economy if huge scams takes place. Economic development may become in equal and social instability.

Myth 4-More FDI Economic grows faster: Yes, FDI increases capital inflow for development but excess of capital inflow through FDI may not lead to self-reliance of country. Excess FDI creates only more private property rather than overall social development. It will lead to foreign capitalist opening market in our market.

Myth 5-Free Market Economy makes India super power: yes, free economy develops nation but it will never lead to overall development of nation. Free economy is good for investors, business man, traders, capitalist and certain section of people. It will destroy local market for foreign business man. It will affect farmers, labors, employees and weaker class.

Bad Effects of LPG:-

1. Increase in Tax Evasion

Private sector generally tries to avoid payment of taxes. Thus privatization of enterprises will result in the decrease of tax income.

2. Concentration of Wealth

Privatization of large industrial units and services sector such as banks and insurance companies will increase concentration of wealth in private hands. It means only rich people will reap the fruits of industrialization and the society will be divided between “haves and have-nots”.

3. Exploitation by Private Sector

Privatization will result in exploitation by rich people. They may charge more prices for their goods and services. They may terminate workers to reduce cost of production. Thus different types of exploitation may be started and the concept of welfare state for Pakistan will be jeopardized.

4. National Security Endangered

Telecommunication, Civil Aviation (Airlines) and railways if privatized then it would be a security risk for the country.


Thursday, August 23, 2012

"King Maker"Kamaraj-Is An Atheist?

Kamaraj during his visit to Tanjore district he saw antique temple,which has been left without proper maintenance.Kamaraj questioned the Priest about the temple administration but priest was not in the position to reply for the question. When Kamaraj left the temple he said that "some people had put god under a dark room than eating in its name,at least give temple Prasatham to poor people..... " When he returned to his it was the detailed conversation between Sirkalai.Po.Ethiraj(former upper house member) and K.Kamaraj(former C.M of Tamilnadu and King maker of India.)

Ethiraj:Does you believe someone known has god?
Kamaraj:God is there or not,its not at all a matter.What ever we do it must be good for others.More than being a theist first be a ethical man.Does doing thousand crime and asking for forgiveness to god will make everything correct?
Ethiraj:Then your saying that someone known has god doesn't exist?If so god has been there he wont allowed place for bad thoughts in society?he must never created upper and lower caste? 
Kamaraj:Upper caste and lower caste are concept of historic society thief,who want to extract wealth without work.everyone born from ovary after then what for upper and lower caste.Its historic blunder.
Ethiraj:Why don't you identify yourself has an atheist?
Kamaraj:I am a politician and a social worker.So i have to work for atheist and theist,i wont see people come to me has a upper caste or lower caste.I am seeing everyone has a human, if someone comes in caste name they cant even come near me.Atheism is a principle of a person,but politician is a common person for all.I have a responsibility to maintain all temples in state,because i am atheist i cant destroy all temples.Even in communist society worship place are there.
Ethiraj:Your not doing any prayer or worship for god.
Kamaraj:Its all work of lazy and work-less people.Which god has expressed  that he would express anger over the one who doesn't met or pray him.Some people do greedy think for god instead of which if they do it for people it would be nice.
Ethiraj:That means you don't believe in many god ideology or you hate god itself?
Kamaraj:People in Arab say allah, In Jerusalem they say Jesus even some christian worship mother Mary so there are thousand of dimension in religion. There are thousand religion and methods of worship. In India, those people who came from middle east spread Hinduism. whereas native Dravidian worship natural goddess and fore fathers. Religion is like believing in political ideology it can vary anytime. people without this basic commonsense fight each other in the name of Religion. Which god has stated to fight like this?
Ethiraj:That means you don't believe in religious epics and sacred books?
Kamaraj:We must accept good things from sacred books rather than superstitious believes.
Ethiraj: From your Speech is clear that you believe in Ram and Krishna character in epic books as god?
Kamaraj: Ram and Krishna are not god they are character in that epics. They became god after certain section of people make up survival in there name. Its herohood worship of film stars. Thousands of superstitious story made million of people to bind together with a Religion. Festival are due to those superstitious stories within the society.
Ethiraj: That means you favor Religion is opium of people?
Kamaraj: Religion is useless for people. Religion preaches fear to people rather than giving confidence to people. Religion creates superstitious believes, so if we respect fellow human being and do some good for society & people that enough. Its more than praying hours before god. 

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

"Unsung Indian Freedom Fighters:Armed Revolutionaries"

India has a long history of freedom struggle.In 100 years of freedom struggle only Gandhi and its associated congress members are considered has a freedom fighters and national heroes. There are many unsung heroes whose sacrifice for country has not been taken for consideration. We need not portray them like Gandhi, but at least respect their sacrifice for nation. Most of the Revolutionary Leaders were betrayed and left without support by Congress leaders and Gandhi.This article to show some real heroes of Indian freedom struggle.

Shaheed Bhagat Singh:(1907-1931)

Bhagat singh was born on 28th September 1907 in Jaranwala Tehsil,Punjab. His family members were activity involved in freedom struggle. Bhagat singh from his early year got involved in revolutionary movement. He was greatly influenced by Marx,Lenin and Engels. Bhagat become a one of the nations first communist leader. He was one the the prominent members of Hindustan Socialist republic association.He was got involved in assassination of Saunders (for Lal lajput raj dead),Delhi assembly bombing and Jail strike. Bhagat Singh was known for his communist views and Why i am atheist?. It was Bhagat Singh who popularized "Inquilab Zindabhad Hindustan Zindabhad"(Long live revolution long live Hindustan).He was hanged in Lahore jail in March 23,1931.There are lots of conspiracy that Gandhi failed to save Bhagat Singh and co-comrades.

Chandra Shekhar Azad:(1906-1931)

Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on 23th July 1906 in Kanpur,Uttar Pradesh. He was know for his favorite conversation with Magistrate. When Magistrate asked his name he replied Azad (liberated),What your father name? he replied Swantantra (Freedom). So he changed his name as azad instead of Chandra shekhar tiwari. he was the one who founded Hindustan republic association. He was the main member got involved in train robbery (Kakori Case). He was influenced by Lenin's socialist revolution. He was close associate with Bhagat singh, sukdev. He was murdered brutally in Alfred Park by British police on 27th feb 1931. 

Sukhdev Thapar:(1907-1931)

Sukhdev was born on 15th may 1907 in Ludhiana,Punjab.He was active member of Hindustan Socialist Republic association. He was co-comrade involved in assassination of saunders along with Bhagat Singh and Rajguru. He was co conspiracy in Lahore case. He was actively involved in jail Hunger strike for equal status for India prisoners. Sukhdev along with Bhagat singh and Rajguru was hanged in Lahore prison on 23 march,1931.

Roshan Singh:(1892-1927)

Roshan Singh was born on 22th January 1892 in Uttar Pradesh. He was active member of Hindustan Socialist Republic association. He was conspired in Kakori train robbery case (To steal funds of British government transferred in train.To revenge British who loot wealth of India?). Even though he was not present during incident, but he was sentenced to death for murder of Mohan lal.During the case judgement, he was going to abuse the judge for not punishing him up to the standard of Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, in the meantime Vishnu whispered in Ears "Thakur Sahib!You have also been punished to level of Bismill" .Roshan Singh Aroused from chair huged Bismill and joyfully said-"Oye Pandit, Did you like to go alone to the gallows?but this Thakur is not going to spare you in any way.He will will accompany you too." They were hanged to dead.

Rajendra Lahiri: (1901-1927)

Rajendra Lahiri was born on 1901 in Bengal. He became active member of Hindustan Socialist Republic association.He was involved in Dakshieswar Bombing case sentenced for 14years imprisonment. Lahiri got involved in famous train robbery case along with Azad.He was sentenced to death on the robbery case. He was hanged to death on 1927 along with co-comrades.

Ashfaqulla Khan: (1900-1927)

Ashfaqulla Khan was born on 22th Oct 1900 in Shahjahanpur,Uttar Pradesh. He was Urdu poet. Khan and Bismal was close friend got involved in Hindustan Republic association. Khan,Azad,bismal,Thakur got involved in Train robbery case.He was sentenced to death. He was hanged along with other conspirators in the robbery case on 1927.             

Ram Prasad Bismil: (1897-1927)

Ram Prasad Bismil was born on 11th June 1897 in Uttar Pradesh. He was part of train robbery case. He was also involved in Manipur Conspiracy case. Bismil believed in socialist ideology. He wrote main article on The revolutionary (Paper of Hindustan Republican association.) He was hanged to death along with other conspirators  of Robbery case. Bismil and Khan was brutally betrayed by a fellow member of the association.He also wrote many poetry literature.

Shivaram Rajguru: (1908-1931)

Rajguru was born on 24th Aug 1908 in Pune,Maharashtra.He was active member of Hindustan socialist republican association. He was key person on assassination of Saunders. He was sentenced to death along with co-comrades of Hindustan socialist republic association. After there death bodies were secretly cerement near River Sutlaz.

Mangal Pandey: (1827-1857)

Mangal Pandey was born on 19th July 1827 in Ballia, Uttar Pradesh. He was sepoy in British India company Army. The first person to rise Mutiny against British east India company. Mangal Pandey voice raised new spirit of Independence and revolution across India.This famous Mutiny known has a first war of Independence.Mangal Pandey was hanged for killing a British Sergent and creating Mutiny against British company rule.He was hanged on 8 Apr, 1857 in Barrackpore Regiment.Its because of his Mutiny British emperor took the rule of India.       

Udham Singh: (1899-1940)

Udham Singh was born on 26th Dec in Sangrur,Punjab.He was last active member of Hindustan socialist republic association. He was largely affect by Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.Udham swore to Kill General Dyer (Responsible for Massacre). So he Infiltrated England in Early 1935's. He was unfortunate that General Dyer died due to disease. Udham Singh Ultimately changed his position to kill Michale O'Dwyer (Lt Governor Of Punjab supported General Dyer.) he got his chance on 13th March,1940 to kill O'Dwyer on 10 Caxton Hall. Udham Singh after killing O'Dwyer and injuring Zetland didn't try to escape. Later he was sentenced to death. Udham singh received bad response from Congress Leaders after Incident stating its "Insanity" including Gandhi and Nehru. It was only Netaji who praised Udham Singh act.   

Note:Congress Leaders were a part of Indian Independence. There are thousands like Udham,Pandey etc didn't even get far recognition for there sacrifice for Nation. Everyone try to know Freedom fighters like this around your locality. Spread there importance across the globe.

Monday, August 13, 2012

End Of The World:Predictions or Chances?

Human activity is severely disrupting almost all life on the planet, which surely doesn't help matters. The current rate of extinctions is, by some estimates, 10,000 times the average in the fossil record. At present, we may worry about snail darters and red squirrels in abstract terms. But the next statistic on the list could be us

Natural Disasters

Asteroid impact: once a disaster scenario gets the cheesy Hollywood treatment, it's hard to take it seriously. But there is no question that a cosmic interloper will hit Earth, and we won't have to wait millions of years for it to happen. In 1908 a 200-foot-wide comet fragment slammed into the atmosphere and exploded over the Tunguska region in Siberia, Russia, with nearly 1,000 times the energy of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Astronomers estimate similar-sized events occur every one to three centuries. Benny Peiser, an anthropologist-cum-pessimist at Liverpool John Moores University in England, claims that impacts have repeatedly disrupted human civilization. As an example, he says one killed 10,000 people in the Chinese city of Chi'ing-yang in 1490. Many scientists question his interpretations: Impacts are most likely to occur over the ocean, and small ones that happen over land are most likely to affect unpopulated areas. But with big asteroids, it doesn't matter much where they land. Objects more than a half-mile wide—which strike Earth every 250,000 years or so—would touch off firestorms followed by global cooling from dust kicked up by the impact. Humans would likely survive, but civilization might not. An asteroid five miles wide would cause major extinctions, like the one that may have marked the end of the age of dinosaurs. For a real chill, look to the Kuiper belt, a zone just beyond Neptune that contains roughly 100,000 ice-balls more than 50 miles in diameter. The Kuiper belt sends a steady rain of small comets earthward. If one of the big ones headed right for us, that would be it for pretty much all higher forms of life, even cockroaches.

Gamma-ray burst:  If you could watch the sky with gamma-ray vision, you might think you were being stalked by cosmic paparazzi. Once a day or so, you would see a bright flash appear, briefly outshine everything else, and then vanish. These gamma-ray bursts, astrophysicists recently learned, originate in distant galaxies and are unfathomably powerful—as much as 10 quadrillion (a one followed by 16 zeros) times as energetic as the sun. The bursts probably result from the merging of two collapsed stars. Before the cataclysmal event, such a double star might be almost completely undetectable, so we'd likely have no advance notice if one is lurking nearby. Once the burst begins, however, there would be no missing its fury. At a distance of 1,000 light-years—farther than most of the stars you can see on a clear night—it would appear about as bright as the sun. Earth's atmosphere would initially protect us from most of the burst's deadly X rays and gamma rays, but at a cost. The potent radiation would cook the atmosphere, creating nitrogen oxides that would destroy the ozone layer. Without the ozone layer, ultraviolet rays from the sun would reach the surface at nearly full force, causing skin cancer and, more seriously, killing off the tiny photosynthetic plankton in the ocean that provide oxygen to the atmosphere and bolster the bottom of the food chain. All the gamma-ray bursts observed so far have been extremely distant, which implies the events are rare. Scientists understand so little about these explosions, however, that it's difficult to estimate the likelihood of one detonating in our galactic neighborhood.

Collapse of the vacuum:  In the book Cat's Cradle, Kurt Vonnegut popularized the idea of "ice-nine," a form of water that is far more stable than the ordinary kind, so it is solid at room temperature. Unleash a bit of it, and suddenly all water on Earth transforms to ice-nine and freezes solid. Ice-nine was a satirical invention, but an abrupt, disastrous phase transition is a possibility. Very early in the history of the universe, according to a leading cosmological model, empty space was full of energy. This state of affairs, called a false vacuum, was highly precarious. A new, more stable kind of vacuum appeared and, like ice-nine, it quickly took over. This transition unleashed a tremendous amount of energy and caused a brief runaway expansion of the cosmos. It is possible that another, even more stable kind of vacuum exists, however. As the universe expands and cools, tiny bubbles of this new kind of vacuum might appear and spread at nearly the speed of light. The laws of physics would change in their wake, and a blast of energy would dash everything to bits. "It makes for a beautiful story, but it's not very likely," says Piet Hut of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey. He says he worries more about threats that scientists are more certain of—such as rogue black holes.

Rogue black holes:  Our galaxy is full of black holes, collapsed stellar corpses just a dozen miles wide. How full? Tough question. After all, they're called black holes for a reason. Their gravity is so strong they swallow everything, even the light that might betray their presence. David Bennett of Notre Dame University in Indiana managed to spot two black holes recently by the way they distorted and amplified the light of ordinary, more distant stars. Based on such observations, and even more on theoretical arguments, researchers guesstimate there are about 10 million black holes in the Milky Way. These objects orbit just like other stars, meaning that it is not terribly likely that one is headed our way. But if a normal star were moving toward us, we'd know it. With a black hole there is little warning. A few decades before a close encounter, at most, astronomers would observe a strange perturbation in the orbits of the outer planets. As the effect grew larger, it would be possible to make increasingly precise estimates of the location and mass of the interloper. The black hole wouldn't have to come all that close to Earth to bring ruin; just passing through the solar system would distort all of the planets' orbits. Earth might get drawn into an elliptical path that would cause extreme climate swings, or it might be ejected from the solar system and go hurtling to a frigid fate in deep space.

Giant solar flares:  Solar flares—more properly known as coronal mass ejections—are enormous magnetic outbursts on the sun that bombard Earth with a torrent of high-speed subatomic particles. Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field negate the potentially lethal effects of ordinary flares. But while looking through old astronomical records, Bradley Schaefer of Yale University found evidence that some perfectly normal-looking, sun like stars can brighten briefly by up to a factor of 20. Schaefer believes these stellar flickers are caused by super flares, millions of times more powerful than their common cousins. Within a few hours, a super flare on the sun could fry Earth and begin disintegrating the ozone layer. Although there is persuasive evidence that our sun doesn't engage in such excess, scientists don't know why super flares happen at all, or whether our sun could exhibit milder but still disruptive behaviour. And while too much solar activity could be deadly, too little of it is problematic as well. Sallie Baliunas at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics says many solar-type stars pass through extended quiescent periods, during which they become nearly 1 percent dimmer. That might not sound like much, but a similar downturn in the sun could send us into another ice age. Baliunas cites evidence that decreased solar activity contributed to 17 of the 19 major cold episodes on Earth in the last 10,000 years.

Reversal of Earth's magnetic field:  Every few hundred thousand years Earth's magnetic field dwindles almost to nothing for perhaps a century, then gradually reappears with the north and south poles flipped. The last such reversal was 780,000 years ago, so we may be overdue. Worse, the strength of our magnetic field has decreased about 5 percent in the past century. Why worry in an age when GPS has made compasses obsolete? Well, the magnetic field deflects particle storms and cosmic rays from the sun, as well as even more energetic subatomic particles from deep space. Without magnetic protection, these particles would strike Earth's atmosphere, eroding the already beleaguered ozone layer. Also, many creatures navigate by magnetic reckoning. A magnetic reversal might cause serious ecological mischief. One big caveat: "There are no identifiable fossil effects from previous flips," says Sten Odenwald of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. "This is most curious." Still, a disaster that kills a quarter of the population, like the Black Plague in Europe, would hardly register as a blip in fossil records.

Flood-basalt volcanism: In 1783, the Laki volcano in Iceland erupted, spitting out three cubic miles of lava. Floods, ash, and fumes wiped out 9,000 people and 80 percent of the livestock. The ensuing starvation killed a quarter of Iceland's population. Atmospheric dust caused winter temperatures to plunge by 9 degrees in the newly independent United States. And that was just a baby's burp compared with what the Earth can do. Sixty-five million years ago, a plume of hot rock from the mantle burst through the crust in what is now India. Eruptions raged century after century, ultimately unleashing a quarter-million cubic miles of lava—the Laki eruption 100,000 times over. Some scientists still blame the Indian outburst, not an asteroid, for the death of the dinosaurs. An earlier, even larger event in Siberia occurred just about the time of the Permian-Triassic extinction, the most thorough extermination known to paleontology. At that time 95 percent of all species were wiped out. Sulphurous volcanic gases produce acid rains. Chlorine-bearing compounds present yet another threat to the fragile ozone layer—a noxious brew all around. While they are causing short-term destruction, volcanoes also release carbon dioxide that yields long-term greenhouse-effect warming. The last big pulse of flood-basalt volcanism built the Columbia River plateau about 17 million years ago. We're ripe for another.

Global epidemics: If Earth doesn't do us in, our fellow organisms might be up to the task. Germs and people have always coexisted, but occasionally the balance gets out of whack. The Black Plague killed one European in four during the 14th century; influenza took at least 20 million lives between 1918 and 1919; the AIDS epidemic has produced a similar death toll and is still going strong. From 1980 to 1992, reports the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, mortality from infectious disease in the United States rose 58 percent. Old diseases such as cholera and measles have developed new resistance to antibiotics. Intensive agriculture and land development is bringing humans closer to animal pathogens. International travel means diseases can spread faster than ever. Michael Osterholm, an infectious disease expert who recently left the Minnesota Department of Health, described the situation as "like trying to swim against the current of a raging river." The grimmest possibility would be the emergence of a strain that spreads so fast we are caught off guard or that resists all chemical means of control, perhaps as a result of our stirring of the ecological pot. About 12,000 years ago, a sudden wave of mammal extinctions swept through the Americas. Ross MacPhee of the American Museum of Natural History argues the culprit was extremely virulent disease, which humans helped transport as they migrated into the New World.

Human-Triggered Disasters

Global warming: The Earth is getting warmer, and scientists mostly agree that humans bear some blame. It's easy to see how global warming could flood cities and ruin harvests. More recently, researchers like Paul Epstein of Harvard Medical School have raised the alarm that a balmier planet could also assist the spread of infectious disease by providing a more suitable climate for parasites and spreading the range of tropical pathogens (see #8). That could include crop diseases which, combined with substantial climate shifts, might cause famine. Effects could be even more dramatic. At present, atmospheric gases trap enough heat close to the surface to keep things comfortable. Increase the global temperature a bit, however, and there could be a bad feedback effect, with water evaporating faster, freeing water vapor (a potent greenhouse gas), which traps more heat, which drives carbon dioxide from the rocks, which drives temperatures still higher. Earth could end up much like Venus, where the high on a typical day is 900 degrees Fahrenheit. It would probably take a lot of warming to initiate such a runaway greenhouse effect, but scientists have no clue where exactly the tipping point lies.

Ecosystem collapse:  Images of slaughtered elephants and burning rain forests capture people's attention, but the big problem—the overall loss of biodiversity—is a lot less visible and a lot more serious. Billions of years of evolution have produced a world in which every organism's welfare is intertwined with that of countless other species. A recent study of Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior offers an example. Snowy winters encourage wolves to hunt in larger packs, so they kill more moose. The decline in moose population allows more balsam fir saplings to live. The fir trees pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, which in turn influences the climate. It's all connected. To meet the demands of the growing population, we are clearing land for housing and agriculture, replacing diverse wild plants with just a few varieties of crops, transporting plants and animals, and introducing new chemicals into the environment. At least 30,000 species vanish every year from human activity, which means we are living in the midst of one of the greatest mass extinctions in Earth's history. Stephen Kellert, a social ecologist at Yale University, sees a number of ways people might upset the delicate checks and balances in the global ecology. New patterns of disease might emerge , he says, or pollinating insects might become extinct, leading to widespread crop failure. Or as with the wolves of Isle Royale, the consequences might be something we'd never think of, until it's too late.

Biotech disaster: While we are extinguishing natural species, we're also creating new ones through genetic engineering. Genetically modified crops can be hardier, tastier, and more nutritious. Engineered microbes might ease our health problems. And gene therapy offers an elusive promise of fixing fundamental defects in our DNA. Then there are the possible downsides. Although there is no evidence indicating genetically modified foods are unsafe, there are signs that the genes from modified plants can leak out and find their way into other species. Engineered crops might also foster insecticide resistance. Longtime skeptics like Jeremy Rifkin worry that the resulting superweeds and superpests could further destabilize the stressed global ecosystem . Altered microbes might prove to be unexpectedly difficult to control. Scariest of all is the possibility of the deliberate misuse of biotechnology. A terrorist group or rogue nation might decide that anthrax isn't nasty enough and then try to put together, say, an airborne version of the Ebola virus. Now there's a showstopper.

Environmental toxins:  From Donora, Pennsylvania, to Bhopal, India, modern history abounds with frightening examples of the dangers of industrial pollutants. But the poisoning continues. In major cities around the world, the air is thick with diesel particulates, which the National Institutes of Health now considers a carcinogen. Heavy metals from industrial smokestacks circle the globe, even settling in the pristine snows of Antarctica. Intensive use of pesticides in farming guarantees runoff into rivers and lakes. In high doses, dioxins can disrupt fetal development and impair reproductive function—and dioxins are everywhere. Your house may contain polyvinyl chloride pipes, wallpaper, and siding, which belch dioxins if they catch fire or are incinerated. There are also the unknown risks to think about. Every year NIH adds to its list of cancer-causing substances—the number is up to 218. Theo Colburn of the World Wildlife Fund argues that dioxins and other, similar chlorine-bearing compounds mimic the effects of human hormones well enough that they could seriously reduce fertility. Many other scientists dispute her evidence, but if she's right, our chemical garbage could ultimately threaten our survival.

Global war:  There are nine countries in the world that admit having atomic weapons and they are often referred to as the Nuclear Club.  Five of these countries are classed as Nuclear Weapons States which is a title and status conferred on them by the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. In order of nuclear acquisition they are USA, Russia, Britain, France and China.  India, Pakistan and North Korea, none of who are current signatories to the Treaty have all undertaken recent nuclear weapons tests. It is widely believed that Israel has nuclear weapons as may South Africa.  Israel refuses to comment and South Africa states that it manufactured six atomic bombs (probably at Valindaba) but has now decommissioned them. There may well be more countries that secretly developed nuclear weapons or acquired them on the black market.

The end of the world scenario is simple.  For unknown reasons the nuclear powers start using their weapons on each other and MAD – or Mutually Assured Destruction – occurs.  The devastation from thermonuclear blasts would be bad enough and would send what was left of mankind back to the Stone Age.  Worse though would be the ongoing effects of nuclear radiation and nuclear winter.  The radiation would engulf the planet on a scale that can’t be imagined.  Within 6 months anyone who was not “blown up” would be very sick. Within 24 months just about everyone is dead. Disease, residual radiation pockets, starvation, secondary pollutants, poisoned rain and freezing temperatures will just about finish off humanity.  It is very possible that a select few will survive on stockpiled rations in deep underground bunkers but even they will have to face a radically changed world if they ever return to the surface. (Amtrak Wars)   Humanity as we know it would be gone.

Robots Invasion: People create smart robots, which turn against us and take over the world. Yawn. We've seen this in movies, TV, and comic books for decades. After all these years, look around and still—no smart robots. Yet Hans Moravec, one of the founders of the robotics department of Carnegie Mellon University, remains a believer. By 2040, he predicts, machines will match human intelligence, and perhaps human consciousness. Then they'll get even better. He envisions an eventual symbiotic relationship between human and machine, with the two merging into "postbiologicals" capable of vastly expanding their intellectual power. Marvin Minsky, an artificial-intelligence expert at MIT, foresees a similar future: People will download their brains into computer-enhanced mechanical surrogates and log into nearly boundless files of information and experience. Whether this counts as the end of humanity or the next stage in evolution depends on your point of view. Minsky's vision might sound vaguely familiar. After the first virtual-reality machines hit the marketplace around 1989, feverish journalists hailed them as electronic LSD, trippy illusion machines that might entice the user in and then never let him out. Sociologists fretted that our culture, maybe even our species, would whither away. When the actual experience of virtual reality turned out to be more like trying to play Pac-Man with a bowling ball taped to your head, the talk died down. To his credit, Minsky recognizes that the merger of human and machine lies quite a few years away.

Mass insanity:  While physical health has improved in most parts of the world over the past century, mental health is getting worse. The World Health Organization estimates that 500 million people around the world suffer from a psychological disorder. By 2020, depression will likely be the second leading cause of death and lost productivity, right behind cardiovascular disease. Increasing human life spans may actually intensify the problem; because people have more years to experience the loneliness and infirmity of old age. Americans over 65 already are disproportionately likely to commit suicide. Gregory Stock, a biophysicist at the University of California at Los Angeles, believes medical science will soon allow people to live to be 200 or older. If such an extended life span becomes common, it will pose unfathomable social and psychological challenges. Perhaps 200 years of accumulated sensations will overload the human brain, leading to a new kind of insanity or fostering the spread of doomsday cults, determined to reclaim life's endpoint. Perhaps the current trends of depression and suicide among the elderly will continue. One possible solution—promoting a certain kind of mental well-being with psychoactive drugs such as Prozac—heads into uncharted waters. Researchers have no good data on the long-term effects of taking these medicines.

Mass genetic mutation: Now this is a very scary scenario that needs some background information.  Bacteria, Amoeba, Plants, Animals and even you are all living organisms often just referred to as “life” and are determined by genes passed down through the ages.  Genes are based on DNA that has taken billions of years to evolve into the complex “life” that exists today.  These genes do mutate naturally but usually with tiny changes over a long period of time.  If they’re “good mutations” then the species improves and evolves as the new mutation is spread through the breeding population.  If it’s “bad mutation” then usually the creature often fails to survive long enough to pass it on or fails to compete with its stronger competitors or predators.  However some bad genetic mutations make it through and spread throughout the population.  Some horrible genetic weaknesses that made it into the greater human population, and now cause disease, include: Angelman Syndrome, Colour Blindness, Down Syndrome, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Haemophilia, and Sickle-cell Disease.

Saturday, August 11, 2012

"FDI in Retail: Will destroy second largest sector in India!"

India has a long history of traders and retailers. Retail trade in India contribute around 10-12% of the GDP. Retail trade in India employes around 4 crore people. In India unorganized retail sector accounts for 96%of the industry. Overall organized sector in India accounts about 8%. so million of people find job in unorganized sector and informal way of earning. So retail sector provides enormous option for large section of people. It employes second largest section of people after agriculture.

At initial stage retail giant's provide enormous gain for consumer and producers. In later part of MNC retailers they would force producers for there demand and price.Consumer get lower price products, retail sector becomes organized sector, but there would be enormous job loss. We have lots of examples around the globe after MNC retail giants occupied the local market.  

WalMart (around 9,000 outlets,revenue $ 500 billion,2.2 million employees),Carrefour (around 2,000 outlets,revenue $ 125 billion, around 5 lakh employees),Tesco (around 6,400 outlets, revenue $ 60 billion, half million employees.),metro etc. They can provide low price for consumer but major drawbacks are low wage,poor working standard,loss of job,loss local market and small traders, Weakening economic,enormous development of private property etc.
Drawbacks of FDI in retail sector in India

The most important factor which is against allowing FDI in retail sector is that small traders will not able to compete with the big players and thus cease to exist. These traders don’t have the capital and expertise to compete with big retail chains. They will not be able to buy goods at a lower price from suppliers while big players who have a strong supply chain network across the world which gives them a high bargaining power to buy goods at the lowest price. The big chains also have a capacity to sustain losses for a longer period therefore able to undercut prices of goods which will lead to desertion of small traders.

 It is assumed that initially foreign stores would keep the prices of their products low in order to attract their customers & eliminate their competitors. But with the time they would establish their monopoly in Indian markets & hence quality and price of products would be compromised. It would be like “Bringing back East India Company. “

 Also in a country like India where millions of people are semi-skilled, it is the retail sector which offers them source of earning as one can easily open a small shop with a little capital. The government should understand that before approving any policy reform in the retail sector it must create jobs in other sectors which can accommodate these people.

 “Only 1 employee  is recruited in 400 yards of  a Wall-Mart’s showroom”.So it is estimated that on an average only 1 will be able to get job in Multi-brand stores while at least 10 people would be losing their jobs due to FDI.If foreign stores are able to set up their monopoly,then even farmers would have no other option than selling their crops to Multi-brand stores at low prices. This would exploit farmers.

Some economist give the argument that poicies of Globalisation & Open Trade  across the border initiated by Dr. Manmohan Singh during 1990s has not been so effective in controlling inflation & price rise . Moreover the problem of unemployment still persists in India.

Opening of Multi-brand stores , setting up of infrastructure , recruitment of staff & maintenance of quality of products during initial stages would force the foreign retailers to sell their products at higher price. So Government’s plea ,that Inflation would be controlled to a larger extent, does not convince majority of Indians.

Advocates of FDI in retail give China has an example, which witnessed enormous growth in retail sector after allowing FDI. But they don’t inform that China allowed a gradual increase in FDI in retail — it allowed an FDI of up to 26 per cent in 1992 and increased it to 49 per cent in 2002 and allowed 100 per cent in 2004. It is also not justifiable to compare India with China: China is a communist country where job market is regulated in contrast India is a democratic country where people have an option to start their own business. In China, manufacturing sector offers numerous employment opportunities but this is not the case with India.

Alternative steps to counter drawbacks of FDI

Change in Economic policies has become a necessity now. There must be a proper survey regarding actual position of demand and supply ration in India.

Although by allowing FDI in retail the biggest gainer will be the consumer who will get more choices at attractive prices, if this is achieved by rendering millions unemployed and denying them their livelihood, then such benefit are worthless. The government should realize that its prime responsibility is to create more jobs for unemployed people. It would make sense that any policy which leads to reduction in jobs should be put on hold until new sources of employment are created.

Instead of opening the sector for FDI in urgency, the government should invest in training of small retailers and traders to guide them on the subject of storing, grading, and refrigerating of perishable goods. Institutes like ITIs and NGOs can be very helpful for implementation of such schemes. Infrastructure of local mandis also need to be upgraded and all kind of facilities and training should be provided to the management of local mandis to reduce the wastage of goods and increase efficiency.

Proper Land Acquisition policies,socio-economic facilities to farmers,proper infrastructure for cold storage,transportation of grains should be on main agenda of Government.

Strengthening of Public Distribution System (PDS) would allow a proper chain of demand & supply.

Source: FDI Retail in India -CPM stand,wikipedia,Internet source,Bablu taughts.

Friday, August 10, 2012

Dream Socialist India: Agriculture has to Change!

India's most detailed Constitution has stated "India is a Secular Socialist Democratic Republic of India." It's Matter of Question weather India provides such think to its people. we are going to discuss  the matter in series of article. Does Constitution declared Socialist can be seen in Reality? Socialist mean equality to all people without caste,race,sex,language etc discrimination. Today India doesn't provide equal economic,health and education opportunity for all people.

Indian Governments latest statistical release say's about 10% of rural people live in less than Rs17. India's poverty index touches about 50% of the people based on International poverty index.Income Inequality in India is very large. Socio- economic problem in India was largely extended to Majority section people. India is largely in equal across various Life service sectors. There is no need to find reason for constitutional failure of socialism in India. The reason's are thousand,but we need to find a solution.  

India is the largest Agriculture country in the world.Agriculture sector contribute about 17% of GDP and 50% of Work force. So if we find a solution for sustainable agriculture change then India will be back on Socialist path.Agriculture has to change its farming methodology for converting it into a profitable sector. Indian Agriculture after green revolution has failed to earn profit and produce Increased we need to change agriculture practice in India.we need to learn from Communist Nation-Cuba.

Cuba's major fertilizer and food providers are Soviet Union before its Fragmentation. After 1989,Cuba faced a large crisis in agriculture,since 80% of agro products are imported. Fidel Castro took up major change in agriculture, where different crops are cultivated in different parts of Cuba. After 1989 situation Cuba become major organic farming country in the world. Cuba became major exporter of sugar and tobacco. Soviet union fall changed agriculture structure in Cuba, now they became largest organic farm exporters.

India contains about 159.7 million hectares arable land is the second largest in the world. About only 50% of the land is irrigated nearly 82.7 million hectares. We need to built our agriculture such way that less fertilizer and more production. If substation-able agriculture change has to be brought then we need to shift towards organic farming. The main reason for failure of agriculture in India was increase in cost farming and failure of irrigation system.

As of 2012 survey India holds about 304 million cattle. Which produces about several million tons of dong every day, which can be used in organic forming, alternative fuel, organic fertilizer etc. which can increase arable land to large extent and reduce co2 emission with use of alternative fuel. Instead of such activity today we use more chemical fertilizers and fossil fueled mechanized tool. Rain water harvesting,check dam,reservoirs can increase irrigation facility for agriculture. Rural employment guarantee scheme as to be monitored for building better irrigation system.PDS and FCI has to be made stronger for increase in profit of farmers. 

Such activity reduces cost of agriculture and increase revenue of the farmers. If government provides enough attention to agriculture then we can stop urbanization and increase rural economy. Strong agriculture better future for India. Lets hope constitution declared socialist can be seen in future India.          

Sunday, August 5, 2012

Salary and Allowance for India's Politician's!!!

What President in India get? What prime minister in India get? What central minister in India get? What 790 Member of Parliament in India get?

President Of India:

Salary: Rs 1.5Lakh / Month
Allowance: Household:Based on the allocation in Union Budget( Last year around Rs.20 crore)
                  Travel:All International and national travel fare free with all family members.
                  Communication:All telephone call are free and no restriction for any telephone connection.
                  Entitled For pension and car allowances.
                  Luxuries Imported Car during term. 

Prime Minister Of  India:

Salary: Rs 50000/Month
Allowance:Daily Allowance:Rs 2000
                 Constitution Allowance: Rs45000
                 Sumptuary Allowance: Rs 3000
                 All travel and communication are free.
                 Entitled for pension and car allowances.
                 Luxuries Imported Car during term.

M.P Of India:

Salary: Rs 50000/Month
Allowance: Daily Allowance:Rs 2000
                  34 time air fare free and all time train fare free (a.c first class)
                  3 telephone line free  
                  500rs Medical allowance every month 
                  Constitution allowance: Rs 45000
                  Pension:Rs 21,000 (Rs 1,500 more for every year more than 5 years)  

Today, Service gets more rewards than any other sector. So why cant Youth select serving nation has a profession since it gives personal satisfaction. Youth In India must consider Politics to for betterment of nation.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Living Legendary Comrade Of Communism:Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro is a revolutionary figure and former Prime Minister of Cuba who served the country from 1959 to 1976 and gained a reputation of an anti- capitalist who openly refuted the American dominance in Asian countries. He was also the 22nd president of the country, a position he took in 1976 and held until 2008, when he resigned and formally transferred all his duties and powers to his brother, vice -president Raul Castro. As a major political, Fidel drew attention for his highly critical views on Capitalists countries including the United States, whose political and corporate influence in Cuba had increased with time. In 1965, he became the first secretary of the communist party of Cuba and embarked on a mission of transforming Cuba into a one-party socialist republic. As a head of Cuba, Castro led the country for nearly five decades and still remains active till this day.
Fidel Castro was born on August 13, 1926 in Biran, near Mayari, Cuba. His father Angel Castro y Argiz, originally from Spain, was relatively wealthy and owned a sugarcane plantation. His mother Lina Ruz Gonzalez had been a maid to Angel's first wife. He grew up in wealthy circumstances amid poverty. His original name was Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz.
After completing his elementary education at the private Catholic School, Fidel went to El Colegio de Belen, a Jesuit school in Havana in 1945. Fidel was an intellectually gifted student with an amazing memory-power. Fidel was, in fact, more interested in sports than in academics and while at Belen, Castro pitched on the school's baseball team. A peasant rebellion in Oriente during Castro's formative years is thought to have influenced his political leanings. 

Student Politics

In 1945 Castro entered law school at the University of Havana, where student activism, violence, and gang fights were common. He became immediately embroiled in the political culture at the University and associated with one of the gangs, the “Union Insurreccional Revolucionaria”. The police even suspected him of the murder of a rival student leader and other violent actions but could not corroborate anything. Despite his reputation and public speaking ability Fidel never became a well-known student leader and lost several student elections.

General Election

In 1947, Castro joined the newly formed Partido Ortodoxo formed by Eduardo Chibas. The Partido Ortodoxo publicly exposed corruption and aimed at establishing Cuban economic independence and freedom from the United States. Chibas was the Presidential candidate for the Party and however lost the election. In 1951, Chibas died after he shot himself in the stomach during a radio broadcast.Following Chiba’s death, Fidel campaigned for a seat in the Cuban Congress and the Party was expected to win the election. But, things changed suddenly when Fulgencio Batista, in a coup seized control of the Cuban government in order to prevent the rise of the Orthodoxos. Under Batista, thousands of political opponents were murdered and the people were held under massive oppression.

Batista established himself as de facto leader and was supported by elements of Cuban society and powerful Cuban agencies. Castro broke away from the Partido Ortodoxo to initiate legal arguments and formally charged Batista with violating the constitution. His petition was denied by the Court of Constitutional Guarantees and he was not allowed even a single hearing. This experience convinced Castro that revolution was the only way to depose Batista and coming to power. Castro married Mirta Diaz Balart, a student from a wealthy Cuban family.


In 1953, Castro abandoned his law practice and led an armed group of fighters to overthrow Batista. On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks, Batista's largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba. In the battle, over sixty revolutionaries were killed and rests, including Fidel Castro, were sent to prison. Though the depose-attempt landed Castro in prison but it also fetched him popularity across Cuba.

After being released in 1955, Castro went to Mexico and met Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara to prepare for second attempt to topple Batista. Since regular contacts with KGB (Soviet Intelligence Agency) had not resulted in the hope for weapon supply, Castro and Guevara visited the United States of America to gather personnel and funds from Cubans living in the US.

After building up a stock of guns and ammunition, Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Almeida along with eighty other rebels set out from Tuxpan, Veracruz on November 26, 1956, for the purpose of starting a rebellion in Cuba. The group was trained under a veteran of Spanish Civil War and became known as the “July 26 Movement” (the date that Castro had attacked the Moncada barracks). Their plan was to set up their base in the Sierra Maestra mountains. On the way to the mountains they were attacked by government troops. By the time they reached the Sierra Maestra there were only sixteen men left with twelve weapons between them. For the next few months Castro's guerrilla army raided isolated army garrisons and were gradually able to build-up their stock of weapons.

The 26th of July Movement waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government and when the guerrillas took control of territory they redistributed the land amongst the peasants. In return, the peasants helped the guerrillas against Batista's soldiers. Many resistant groups were formed in the towns and rural regions of Cuba. In some cases the peasants also joined Castro's army. In an effort to find out information about Castro's army people were pulled in for questioning. Many innocent people were tortured. Suspects, including children, were publicly executed and then left hanging in the streets for several days as a warning to others who were considering joining Castro. The behavior of Batista's forces increased support for the guerrillas.

In an attempt to crush the fighters of Castro and other resistant outfits, Batista launched, Operation Verano in 1958. Castro's guerrilla forces scored a series of victories, largely aided by Batista's uncommitted and poorly trained army When Operation Verano ended, Castro ordered three columns commanded by Guevara, Jaime Vega and Camilo Cienfuegos to invade central Cuba where they enjoyed the strong support of rebellious elements. In January 1959, Batista lost the battle at Santa Clara and fled to the Dominican Republic. The junta (military rule) selected Dr. Carlos Piedra, one of the oldest judges of the Supreme Court, as provisional President of Cuba but Castro refused to accept the selection. The workers came out on strike and the military were forced to accept the people's desire for change. 

Castro - The Leader

On January 8, 1959, Castro marched into Havana victoriously as Cuba’s new and popular leader. On January 5, on Castro’s demand, Dr. Urrutia, former judge of the Urgency Court of Santiago de Cuba, was installed as the Provisional President and Law professor Jose Miro Cardona as Prime Minister. Castro assumed the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on January 8. Following the sudden resignation of Jose Miro on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Cuba.
The United States quickly recognized the new Cuban government, but tensions arose as Fidel Castro set about far-reaching reforms.  In his first hundred days in office Castro's passed several new laws including
  • Rents were cut by up to 50 per cent for low wage earners
  • Property owned by Batista and his ministers was confiscated;
  • The telephone company was nationalized and the rates were reduced by 50 per cent;
  • Land, including his own portion was redistributed amongst the peasants 
  • Abolished separate facilities like swimming pools, beaches, hotels, cemeteries for blacks and whites.
These pro-peasants and pro-worker reforms led to the end of U.S. economic dominance.  Moreover, Castro also began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union. In 1960, a variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from the USSR. Consequently, on January 3, 1961, Washington broke off diplomatic ties with Cuba. 

On April 16, 1961, he formally declared Cuba a socialist state.  The very next day, around 1,400 members Cuban exiles, trained by the Central Intelligence Agency, invaded at the Bay of Pigs. The Cuban armed forces repelled the invaders, killing many and capturing a thousand.

Operation Mongoose

In March 1960, Eisenhower approved a CIA plan to overthrow Castro. The plan involved a budget of $13 million to train "a paramilitary force outside Cuba for guerrilla action." The strategy was organized by Richard Bissell and Richard Helms. An estimated 400 CIA officers were employed full-time to carry out what became known as Operation Mongoose. Edward Lansdale became project leader whereas William Harvey became head of what became known as Task Force W. The JM WAVE station served as operational headquarters for “Operation Mongoose”.

Fidel Castro once said, “"If surviving assassination attempts were an Olympic event, I would win the gold medal." The group or unit responsible for Castro’s protection has revealed that there were 638 attempts made by the CIA to kill Castro, but every time he survived.

In a survey carried out by a private firm found that 90 per cent of the Cuban population, supported Fidel Castro and policies. The revelation assisted Castro in tightening his grip over Cuba and he took started enjoying all the powers of the government. He was all-in-all of Cuba. Castro put a ban on the existence of political parties and announced that it would destroy the national unity and integrity.

Castro was also becoming harsh towards people, especially intellectuals and political thinkers who argued his policies and actions. He often reshuffled his ministries and inducted the young soldiers who were loyal to him during the guerilla war against Batista. Castro continued to serve as the “Head of the state” for almost five decades.


While suffering from number of severe illnesses, on July 31, 2006, Castro delegated all his powers to his brother Raul Castro. The powers included were that of President of the Council of state, President of the Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party and the post of commander in chief of the armed forces. Announcing his retirement from official public life, Castro on February 18, 2008, said that he would not accept the positions of president and commander in chief. On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly of People's Power unanimously chose his brother, Raul Castro, as Fidel's successor as President of Cuba. 

50 Year's Of Revolution:

Jan 1 1959: Batista flees to Dominican Republic as the rebels take power.
Jan 8 1959: Castro enters Havana following triumphant procession through island from east of Cuba.
Oct 19 1960: United States begins partial economic embargo.
Jan 3 1961: Washington breaks off diplomatic relations with Cuba.
April 16 1961: Castro declares Cuba a socialist state.
April 19 1961: Bay of Pigs invasion. CIA-backed Cuban exiles are defeated.
Feb 7 1962: United States imposes full trade embargo on Cuba.
Oct 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis. After thirteen day standoff, Russians withdraw missiles from Cuba.
Oct 9 1967: Che Guevara killed by Bolivian troops seeking to emulate Cuban-style revolution in South America.
Sept 1 1977: Resumption of limited economic ties between Cuba and United States.
Apr-Sept 1980: Mariel Boatlift. Cuba allows mass exodus of about 125,000 citizens to the United States, many leaving from the Mariel port west of Havana.
Aug 14 1993: Havana ends ban on use of dollars.
Aug 1994: Raft Crisis. More than 30,000 Cubans flee island on flimsy boats, many perishing in shark-infested waters between Cuba and Florida. Washington and Havana sign migration agreement to stem exodus and allow minimum of 20,000 legal entry visas per year for Cubans.
March 12 1996: The Helms- Burton law - allowing the United States to penalise foreign companies investing in Cuba - is signed into law by President Clinton.
Jan. 21-25 1998: Visit of Pope John Paul II, who condemns the US embargo and calls for greater freedom on the island.
Jan 1 1999: Castro celebrates 40 years in power.
Nov 1999 - April 2000: Elián González affair dominates Cuba-US relations. Elián is eventually returned to his father in Havana.
June 25 2001: Castro has to be helped off stage after near collapse at open-air rally outside Havana
July 27 2001: Castro leads crowd, estimated at 1.2 million, in parade to celebrate the Cuban revolution and demonstrate against the US blockade. Castro prepares to celebrate 75th birthday in August.
December 16 2001: Shipments of corn and chicken arrive in Havana harbour, the first direct US food sales to Cuba in nearly 40 years.
March 6 2003: Castro is elected by parliament to sixth five-year term as president of Council of State – Cuba's governing body.
March 18 2003: A crackdown by Cuba on dissidents alleged to be working with the US sees 75 sentenced to prison terms ranging from six to 28 years.
October 20 2004: Following a speech, Castro trips and falls, shattering his left kneecap and breaking his right arm highlighting his old age.
November 2004: Cuba releases half-dozen political prisoners including dissident writer Raúl Rivero, in a move widely seen as intended to court favour with the European Union.
February 2 2005: Castro calls President Bush "deranged" for referring to Cuba as an outpost of tyranny.
July 27 2006: A four-hour Revolution Day speech urging Cubans to have patience as electrical problems are solved marks Castro's final personal appearance as president.
July 31 2006: Younger brother, Raúl Castro, is temporarily handed power after Fidel recovers from an operation for gastrointestinal bleeding.
August 13 2006: Birthday celebrations for Castro's 80th are postponed until December to give him more time for recovery.
December 2 2006: Castro fails to appear at military parade marking the 50th anniversary of Cuba's Revolutionary Armed Forces and does not attend any of his birthday celebrations.
March 28 2007: The first of a series of essays called Reflections of the Commander-in-Chief are written by Castro voicing his opinion on international affairs while he remains off the public stage.
June 18 2007: Castro's sister-in-law, Vilma Espín – Raúl's longtime wife and former fellow rebel fighter dies aged 77.
August 13 2007: Castro turns 81 and fails to appear in public again.
October 14 2007: Live broadcast of telephone from Castro to ally Hugo Chavez who tells him: "You will never die."
December 18 2007: Castro publishes essay saying he doesn't intend to hold onto power forever and will not obstruct the path of a younger people coming to power. Repeats this idea in a letter to parliament 10 days later.
Jan 20 2008: Castro re-elected to parliament opening possibility that he could remain as president.
February 19 2008: Castro resigns as president but says he will remain in parliament.
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